Capital becomes an important driving force for the development of mining economy
The per capita share of mineral resources in China is far below the world average. The per capita reserves of 45 major mineral resources in China rank 80th in the world, only 58% of the world average. The major pillar minerals required by the national economy, such as iron, manganese, lead and zinc, cannot meet the demand. More than 60% of iron concentrates, more than 70% of copper concentrates and 50% of bauxite need to be imported from abroad every year.
China is rich in total metal mineral resources. 171 kinds of mineral resources have been found. The potential value of proven mineral resources reserves accounts for 14.6% of the total value of the world's mineral resources, ranking the third in the world. However, the dependence of major metal mineral resources on foreign countries is high, posing a potential serious threat to China's national economic development.
After more than 60 years of mining since the founding of the People's Republic of China, China's shallow resources have been reduced and exhausted year by year, and the mining of mineral resources, especially metal mineral resources, is in the stage of comprehensively advancing to the deep. Since the 21st century, 16 underground metal mines have reached or exceeded 1000 meters in mining depth. Among them, Jiapigou Gold Mine in Jilin Province and Huize Lead Zinc Mine in Yunnan Province are more than 1500 meters long.
Mining status and problems
Recently, a large gold deposit with 400 tons of metal reserves has been discovered at the depth of 1600 meters to 2600 meters in the Xiling mining area of Sanshandao Gold Mine, indicating the direction for China to find larger gold deposits in similar ore concentration areas such as deep Jiaodong Peninsula. With the progress of exploration technology and equipment, it is entirely possible to find a number of large gold deposits at the depth of 3000 meters to 5000 meters in China.
According to statistics, in the next 10 years, more than one-third of China's metal mines will have a mining depth of 1000 meters or more. Deep mining is the main problem faced by the development of metal mineral resources in China, and gold mines will be the pioneers of deep mining.
The future development of metal mineral resources involves three major issues: green development, deep mining and intelligent mining. Among them, deep mining is the overall theme. In deep mining, all new mining concepts, new methods, new technologies and new processes, including green development and intelligent mining, must show their skills to ensure the realization of deep safe mining.
Deep mining faces many problems, including deep high stress, lithology deterioration, deep well high-temperature environment and other key problems. To solve a series of difficult problems in deep mining, it is necessary to widely absorb various disciplines and new and high technologies, develop advanced non-traditional mining techniques and technologies, and create a mining model with higher efficiency, lower cost, least environmental pollution and the best safety conditions.
Strategic Research on Science and Technology Issues
The geostress is the natural stress in the stratum. Before mining excavation, the stratum is in a natural equilibrium state. Mining excavation causes the geostress to release to the excavation space, forming a "release load", leading to deformation and stress concentration of surrounding rock, and generating disturbance energy. When the disturbance energy gathered in the rock mass reaches a very high level and is released suddenly when the surrounding rock breaks, impact damage will occur, that is, rock burst. The rockburst prediction should be closely combined with the mining process. According to the future mining plan, the size, time and spatial distribution of the disturbance energy induced by the future mining can be calculated quantitatively by using data simulation and other methods, so that the development trend of the rockburst induced by the future mining can be predicted.
Deep well high-temperature environment control and cooling treatment is another key engineering technology problem in deep metal mining. High temperature will cause serious deterioration of working face conditions, greatly reduce labor productivity and equipment operation efficiency, and cause serious disasters and accidents. The commonly used mine cooling technologies at home and abroad include non artificial cooling and artificial cooling. These are passive cooling technologies. In order to effectively solve the problem of deep well cooling, active cooling technologies must be developed.
The cooling technology focuses on two directions
Thermal insulation technology for high temperature strata of wells, research and develop new and efficient thermal insulation materials, new technologies and new processes, and isolate the high temperature heat source of strata.
The deep well geothermal development technology, if the deep well mining and deep geothermal development technology are organically combined, will find a subversive technical way for deep well cooling of mining engineering, which can achieve a win-win situation between deep energy development and resource development.
In addition, non-traditional blasting continuous rock breaking and cutting mining method, green ecological mining mode, remote intelligent unmanned mining, etc. are also key engineering science and technology issues. To solve these problems, China must increase investment in science and technology, and base itself on independent innovation on the basis of introduction digestion absorption re innovation.
Financing and Mining Capital Market
With the globalization and informatization of the world mining economy, the international mining capital circulation has become an important driving force for the development of the mining economy.
Mining industry is the basic industry of modern industrial system and plays an important role in national economic systems of various countries. With the reform and development of mining enterprises and the reform of the geological exploration economic system since 1998, China's mineral resources development financing has gradually developed from a single financing method relying on financial planning to a diversified financing method. At present, the basic framework of the investment and financing system has been initially established to meet the requirements of the socialist market economy. Compared with the traditional system, its capital preparation methods and operating mechanisms have undergone profound changes.
Although the reform of China's mining financing system has made some achievements, compared with the mature market economy system, there is still a long way to go. There are still some major problems in mining financing and investment, such as the government's functions have not been fundamentally transformed, the system of enterprise financing subject to administrative approval still exists, the domestic financing channels have obvious defects, the failure of financial intermediaries is difficult to play an effective role, non-financial stock institutions are not sound and perfect, foreign investment in China has problems, and overseas financing is limited.
In the process of mineral resources development, there are also three major risks: project exploration risk, project mine construction risk, and mine mining risk.
To promote the further development of China's mining industry, it is urgent to establish a mining capital market with Chinese characteristics in accordance with the operating rules and experience of the international mining capital market. Without an effective capital market, the industry cannot be integrated. The development of mining capital market is the most important institutional measure to disperse mining risks and establish a diversified market-oriented risk allocation mechanism.
At the same time, the development of the mining capital market, on the basis of creating multiple financing channels for enterprises, provides a market-oriented platform for improving the corporate governance structure, and also provides an appropriate capital expansion mechanism for the internationalization of mining, which will fundamentally break the economic thinking of producing small mines.